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Resources for Earth Processes

The earth processes module explores the processes which build and shape the crust of the earth--the landforms upon which we live and play and these links provide additional information on the key concepts.

Earth Processes

Volcanoes Weathering and Erosion
Geysers Mudpots
Fumaroles Hot Springs
Earthquakes Mars Grand Canyon
Pacific Ring of Fire:
Volcano Locations
Pacific Ring of Fire:
Earthquake Epicenters
The Dynamic Earth/Plate Tectonics The Rock Cycle
Rocks and Soils Acid Rain
Floods Dams and How They are Used
Meteors An Astronauts View: Geology Quiz
Streams and Rivers Sedimentation


Alaska Volcano Observatory

Some 40+ active volcanoes in Alaska are actively monitored giving us some real-time geophysical data.

Current Eruptions in Japan

Information and images of Japanese volcanoes, including a link to maps of affected areas.

Martian Volcanoes

Information, photos, and references concerning volcanoes on Mars.

MTU Volcanoes Page

Information about current global volcanic activity, research in remote sensing of volcanoes and their eruptive habits, hazard mitigation, "Decade Volcanoes", with links to government agencies and research institutions.

The Plus Side of Volcanoes - Geothermal Energy

The internal heat associated with young volcanic systems has been harnessed to produce geothermal energy.

Types of Volcanoes

Information written by Scott K. Rowland, provided by Volcano World.

Volcano Web

Links to information and images on a wide variety of volcanic phenomena.

Volcano World

A huge collection of information and resources on volcanoes all over our world and other worlds! Also find "Ask a Volcanologist."

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Weathering and Erosion

El Nino and Climate Prediction

This publication is funded by the Office of Global Programs of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

El Nino & La Nina Resources

Articles, reports, movies, books, bibliographies, and more provided by the Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies Library in Tallahassee, Florida.

El Nino Theme Page

Good information on El Nino from benefits to impacts, provided by the U.S. Dept. of Commerce, NOAA and PMEL.

Information About El Nino

Links to a variety of information on El Nino provided by USA Today's Weather Service.

Stream Erosion Activities

Activities provided by BellNet to study the ways streams change course and the effect on surrounding land.

Weathering and Erosion

Types of weathering and erosion with photos and explanations including diagrams and vocabulary.

Wind Erosion Research Unit

The laboratory serves as a focal point for wind erosion research in the United States and is also a frequent stop for foreign scientists interested in various aspects of wind erosion.

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About Geysers

A description of what they are, why they occur, how they may predict earthquakes, and why they are so rare. Also included are links to geothermal energy.

Geysers and the Earth's Plumbing Systems

Meg Streepey explains how geysers work.

Imperial Geyser

First observed in 1927 and named as a result of a newspaper contest. Currently active, it has gone through periods of dormancy which previously lasted as long as 37 years.

What's Up with Geysers

WyoJones' Yellowstone Geyser Pages are full of information and images, including links to other geysers.

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Infared Gallery of Bubbling Mudpots

Interesting infared photos of various mudpots found in Yellowstone National Park.

Mudpots and How they Work

A brief description and photo from the official website of Yellowstone National Park.

Mudpots and Mud "Volcanoes"

Information and photos of mudpots.

Virtual Guidebook of the Mudpots at Bumpass Hell

A 360° panoramic view of these mudpots found in Lassen Volcanic National Park.

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Fumarole Photoglossary

A short description and photo of a fumarole.


An article on the fumaroles near the Caliente Vent deposit.

Steaming Fumaroles

Photos and information on fumaroles.

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Hot Springs

Life at High Temperatures

Thomas D. Brock provides resources about plant and animal life in and around hot thermal springs in various locations. He gives background information about what causes hot springs, how they began, where they are located, as well as what types of living things can survive in a hot environment.

Mammoth Hot Springs

Information and beautiful pictures of the hot springs in Yellowstone National Park.

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ABAG Earthquake Maps and Information

Earthquake information and maps from the San Francisco Bay area.

Graphical Earthquake Maps

Click on the region within the map of interest to you.

Seismic Source Modeling

Seismic source modeling is taken to mean the modeling of seismograms to investigate kinematic properties of the earthquake source.

Seismological Laboratory

The Caltech Seismological Laboratory monitors and provides information on seismic activity in Southern California.

Southern California Earthquake Data Center

Find out about recent earthquakes, see maps of fault lines, and explore historical information about earthquakes in southern California.

U.C. Berkely's Seismological Laboratory

A large collection of information and links on California earthquakes.

USGS Earthquake Information

The latest quake information, studying earthquakes, hazards, preparedness, and more.

The World Wide Earthquake Locator

An earthquake analysis system using data dynamically obtained over the internet.

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Mars "Grand Canyon"

Astronomy for Kids: Mars

Description and photo.

The Grand Canyon of Mars and How it Formed

Download the teacher guide for these 5 activities which explore the Grand Canyon of Mars.
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Pacific Ring of Fire: Volcano locations

Ring of Fire

Maps and activity along the Ring of Fire.

Savage Earth

The Ring of Fire info by Kathy Svitil from PBS online.

Volcanoes: The Ring of Fire

ThinkQuest project explaining facts about the Ring of Fire.

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Pacific Ring of Fire: Earthquake Epicenters

Amazingly Awesome Ring of Fire

Learn about divergent, transform, and convergent plates or subduction zones making up the Ring of Fire.

Location of Plate Boundaries

Earthquakes and volcanoes, evidence of unrest in the Earth, help locate the edges of plates. Earthquakes are distributed in narrow, linear belts that circle the Earth.

Map of Earthquake Epicenters

Precisely as expected from theory, volcanoes and earthquakes are concentrated along mid-ocean ridges and trenches ( the Pacific Ring of Fire) where crust is created and destroyed.

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Dynamic Earth/ Plate Tectonics

The Dynamic Earth

This site provides links to different research and teaching activities within the Department of Earth Sciences at Monash University which relate to how and why the Earth is moving. The links are ordered in terms of scale from the largest phenomenon: plate motion, down to the smallest: dislocation glide.

Geology: Plate Tectonics

This site explains the theories behind the history of the Earth with animated gifs to demonstrate them.

Plate Tectonics, the Cause of Earthquakes

A well-illustrated discourse of what happens in plate tectonics to cause earthquakes.

Plate Tectonics Lesson

A description of physical and chemical changes of the Earth, historical development of plate tectonics, and desciptions and locations of plate boundaries.

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The Rock Cycle

The Rock Cycle

A clickable picture of the rock cycle from the University of British Columbia.

The Rock Cycle

Earth Floor presents this illustrated explanation of the rock cycle which never stops.

The Rock Cycle Experiments

Ten experiments centering around the rock cycle written by Chris King for BBC Education.

What is the Rock Cycle?

A diagram of the rock cycle.

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Rocks and Soils


A guide to various gemstones, the "flowers of the mineral kingdom."

Most Helpful Online Geology Resources

This website has done all the work for you! You'll find the most useful sites about geology and its related fields, with short descriptions to help you find exactly what you're looking for quickly and easily.

Rockhounds Information Page

Information, images and pictures, books, articles, general earth science information, paleontology-related sites, and much more.

The Virtual Cave

Explore four different types of caves including solution caves, lava tube caves, sea caves, and erosional caves with text and photos from Djuna Bewley and Dave Bunnell.

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Acid Rain

Acid Rain

The U.S. EPA presents a look at acid rain, what it is, how it is measured, with experiments, activities, and more.

Acid Rain

Environment Canada looks at the facts about acid rain, examining the effects of acid rain on the environment, including water, forests, air quality, and how it affects your health.

Acid Rain: Are the Problems Solved?

The Center for Environmental Information, inc, provides these resources from their conference of May, 2001.

Acid Rain Hotlist

A collection of information and resources on acid rain from the Miami Museum of Science.

Acid Rain Revisited

Find out recent problems from acid rain with an evaluation of the impilcations for the future.

Acid Rain on Venus

Did you know that there is acid rain on Venus? Here's the place to learn about it.

EPA Acid Rain Program

The overall goal of the Acid Rain Program is to achieve significant environmental and public health benefits through reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides, the primary causes of acid rain.

The PH Factor

Do an experiment on acid rain provided by the Miami Museum of Science.

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Floods Related to Volcanoes

Information, graphics, and links.

The Johnstown Flood Museum

Learn about the devastating flood of 1899 which killed over 2,200 people in Johnstown, Pennsylvania in the greatest man-made disaster of all time.

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Dams and How They are Used

Earthen Dams

Some information on the three types of earthen dams: soil-saving dams, grade stablization dams, and flood control dams.

Federal Hydro Projects

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation are the owners and operators of the 29 federally owned hydro projects on the Columbia and Snake Rivers. Bonneville Power Administration markets and distributes the power generated from these federal dams and from Washington Nuclear Plant #2.

Locks and Dams

How does a lock and a dam make an unnavigable part of a waterway navigable? Newton's Apple gives some insight into how dams and locks work along with a look at how they affect the river environment.

Lower Colorado River Authority Dams

Learn about the dams that the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA) maintains along the lower Colorado River which create the Highland Lakes in Central Texas.

The United States Committee on Large Dams

What is a dam? Why are they important? How do they work? Learn the answers to these questions at this site.

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Meteor Crater Enterprises

Images of meteor craters and their impact.

Sky and Telescope Meteor Page

Information and resources about meteors.

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Streams and Rivers

What is a Stream?

An illustrated explanation of the formation of streams provided by the Gulf of Maine Aquarium.

Rivers: From Source to Sea

An explanation of how rivers are formed from the Geography Mining Company.

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Discover How Rocks are Formed

View animations showing how igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks are formed. Also included are photos of rock samples of each type.

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